R.A. Starostin1, B.I. Gataullin1,2, B.R. Valitov2, I.G. Gataullin1

1Kazan State Medical Academy ― Branch Campus of the FSBEI FPE RMACPE MOH Russia, Kazan

2Republican Clinical Oncology Dispensary of Ministry of Healthcare of Tatarstan Republic named after professor M.Z. Sigal, Kazan

Gataullin Ilgiz G. ― Doct. of Sci. (Med.), Professor of the Department of Oncology, Radiology and Palliative Care of the Kazan State Medical Academy ― Branch Campus of the FSBEI FPE RMACPE MOH Russia

36 Butlerov Str., Kazan, 420015, Russian Federation, tel. +7-903-306-03-59, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5115-6388

Abstract. Colorectal cancer is one of the leading cancers in terms of morbidity and mortality, this location accounts for 10% of the total incidence of cancer in various localizations. Men are at higher risk of developing colon cancer than women. The main risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer are senior age, inflammatory bowel disease, smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight or obese, and dietary habits: the risk increases with excessive consumption of red meat and processed meat. In contrast, the consumption of milk, whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and intake of calcium, dietary fiber, multivitamins, and vitamin D reduces the risk of the disease. There is a sufficient information in the literature concerning the multifaceted effect of the gut microbiota on the colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. It is considered, that up to 10% of cases of sporadic colon cancer may be due to hereditary genetic factors associated with hereditary mutations. This literature review is presented for better understanding of the complex interactions between the human body and the range of environmental factors, for the clarification of the specific mechanisms of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis that underlie the primary prevention and treatment of this disease.

Key words: colorectal cancer, epidemiology, risk factors, microbiome.