D.V. Aleksantsev, Z.Z. Mamedli, D.V. Kuzmichev, A.V. Polynovskiy, A.A. Aniskin, A.S. Gorbunova

N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Moscow

Aleksantsev Denis V. — resident of the N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology

23 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115478, Russian Federation, tel. +7-968-357-22-15, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6478-0005

Abstract. Neuroendocrine tumors are rare malignant neoplasms of the rectum. The number of incidences have increased 9 times in the last half of a century, mainly due to the widespread introduction of endoscopic technologies. In most cases, they are indolent submucosal formations up to 1 cm in size with a low risk of metastasis. The surgery is the main treatment of patients with localized NET of the rectum. Patients face excellent long-term prognosis in case of tumor radical removal: the median overall survival at the first stage reaches 30 years, and the 5-year survival rate is 93%. The choice of an adequate volume of surgical intervention depends on the correct endoscopic assessment of the tumor, which makes it possible to suspect the malignancy neuroendocrine nature before it’s removal. Due to the different level of endoscopic expertise  among specialists, there is often a situation when NET are not entirely excised during the first endoscopy, so entails transanal endomicrosurgery (TEM) to be estimated as a method for treatment of patients with tumors up to 20 mm in size in the absence of negative prognosis factors.

This literature review is devoted to the issues of diagnosis, morphology, features of the course and approaches to the treatment of rectal NET.

Key words: neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, transanal endomicrosurgery, oncoproctology, rare malignant neoplasms.