A.I. Ivanov1,3,4, V.A. Popov2, M.V. Burmistrov2-4, A.N. Chugunov4, M.A. Nazmeev2, R.R. Zaynutdinov2
1Republican Clinical Oncology Dispensary of Ministry of Healthcare of Tatarstan Republic named after prof. M.Z. Sigal, Kazan
2Republican Clinical Hospital, Kazan
3Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan
4Kazan State Medical Academy ― Branch Campus of the FSBEI FPE RMACPE MOH Russia, Kazan
Popov Vladimir A. — endoscopist of the endoscopy department, researcher at the research department of the Republican Clinical Hospital
138 Orenburgskiy tract, Kazan, 420064, Russian Federation, tel. +7-999-156-88-20, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective — to analyze the results of esophageal stenting in comparison with gastrostomy in patients with malignant dysphagia.
Material and methods. The first group consists of 100 men and 42 women with malignant dysphagia, who underwent stenting of the esophagus and cardia with self-expanding metal stents. The group consists of 142 people aged 43 to 90 years. Stenting of the esophagus in this group was performed with the aim of resolving malignant stenosis of the esophagus in 71 patients: malignant stenosis of the esophageal-gastric junction in 59 patients and extraorgan compression of the esophagus from the outside in 12 patients. The second group consisted of 164 people in the age group from 33 to 89 years — 140 men and 24 women who underwent gastrostomy by the laparotor method according to Topprover in order to resolve malignant dysphagia. Gastrostomy was imposed on 110 patients due to malignant stenosis of the esophagus: with malignant stenosis of the esophageal-gastric junction in 44 patients and as a result of external compression in 10 patients.
Results. Complications in patients after stenting in the remote period occurred in 17 cases. In the group of patients who underwent gastrostomy, complications requiring gastrostomy replacement occurred in 23 patients. Death occurred in one patient as a result of specific complications after gastrostomy. Life expectancy as a percentage, regardless of the pathology of the disease, does not have a large spread in the comparison groups and is approximately the same. The results of studies on life expectancy depending on the type of treatment (stenting-gastrostomy) and the location of the tumor lesion did not reveal statistically significant differences.
Conclusions. Comparison of the results of implantation of self-expanding metal esophageal stents and gastrostomy by the laparotomic method in malignant dysphagia of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction was performed for the first time. In the course of the study, it was revealed that in the studied groups of patients, life expectancy in percentage terms, regardless of the pathology of the disease, does not have a wide spread and is approximately the same. There are no statistically significant differences in life expectancy depending on the type of treatment (stenting-gastrostomy) and the location of the tumor lesion in the analysis of variance according to the criterion of the least significant difference. Esophageal stenting with self-expanding metal stents is the least traumatic and effective method of choosing the resolution of malignant dysphagia of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction with low complication rates, which allows to restore adequate nutrition, thereby improving the quality of life in incurable patients.
Key words: esophageal cancer, esophageal stenting, life expectancy, adenocarcinoma, gastrostomy.