S.V. Zinchenko1, I.M. Fatkhutdinov1, D.А. Akhmadeeva2

1Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan

2Kazan State Medical University, Kazan

Fatkhutdinov Ilsur M. ― Cand. of Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor of the Department of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University,

74 Karl Marks Str., Kazan, 420012, Russian Federation, tel. +7-987-225-11-35, e-mail: ilsur1801@mail.ru, SPIN-code 7463-0403

Abstract. The analgesic properties of coca leaves have been known to the Mayan tribes since the 2nd millennium BC. Local anesthesia begins its official history since the middle of the 19th century. In 1859, the German chemist Albert Neumann (1834 – 1861), who worked at the University of Göttingen, isolated a 0,25% alkaloid in its pure form, which he called «cocaine». The scientist noticed the numbness of the tongue that occurs after contact with cocaine. The art of local anesthesia is very dynamic, this is reflected both in the development of this direction at the present time and in its history. To date, the history of local anesthesia has more than 160 years. Over the specified period of time, local anesthesia has undergone major changes. Local anesthetics are a legacy that preserves the many years of work of scientists and doctors, their experience. With their help, millions of patients in the world every day get rid of pain during operations and various surgical interventions. This study uses general methodological approaches for historical and medical research, reflecting the dynamics of the development of local anesthesia in medicine, its role at the present stage of the development of medical science. Based on the data obtained, the following stages of the development of local anesthesia can be distinguished. It all started with terminal anesthesia, then there was a stage of infiltration anesthesia, which is still widely used today. At the beginning of the 20th century, doctors began to practice case anesthesia. This technique has expanded the possibilities of local anesthesia. The use of local anesthetics for regional anesthesia is the highest level of its application. Local anesthesia is currently at the next stage of its development. Today we have a wide variety of local anesthetics, and local anesthesia is increasingly being used in pediatric surgery. Understanding history allows us to expand the horizons of our knowledge.

Key words: local anesthesia, history, novocaine, surgery.