Abstract. To clarify the stage of disease and selection of adequate treatment tactics in patients with peripheral NSCLC must be rational use of radiation and nuclear diagnostic methods in diagnosis of bone metastases. The article presents the results of using a complex of modern radiation and nuclear diagnostic methods (SPECT/CT, PET/CT with FDG) in 71 patients with peripheral NSCLC to detect bone metastases. The evaluation of the diagnostic capabilities of SPECT/CT and PET/CT with FDG is presented.
Number 3 (25) 2016
CHOOSING OF SECOND AND THIRD LINE THERAPY OF GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS
Abstract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors. It is possible to carry out three consecutive lines of target therapy against metastatic GISTs: imatinib as first-line, sunitinib as second line and regorafenib as third line. Almost all metastatic GISTs eventually develop resistance to imatinib and sunitinib, resulting in fatal disease progression. Regorafenib is effective after the failure of imatinib and sunitinib. Some patients stop treatment due to sunitinib related toxicity. Regorafenib can be used as the second line therapy of metastatic GISTs in case of sunitinib intolerance.
POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS OF RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG TUMORS
Introduction. Recently, patients with distant metastases were considered inoperable and had to rely on palliative systemic chemotherapy. However, with the development of new technologies and minimally invasive operations the boundaries of curable have expanded. One of these new technologies used in the treatment of patients with lung neoplasm who had contraindications to the surgery is radiofrequency ablation. In this article we analyzed the complications of radiofrequency ablation.
COMPLEX APPROACH FOR TREATMENT OF EARLY RECTAL CANCER
Abstract. Progress in surgical technologies enables us to perform minimally invasive organ sparing procedures in cases of early diagnosis of cancer. The aim of the study was to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with early stages of rectal cancer. The study enrolled 120 patients with rectal cancer. 40 patients were treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery, 40 patient ― by endoscopic mucosal resection; 40 patients had conventional radical surgery. Short- and longterm results were studied. Lower morbidity rate (10%), satisfactory level of quality of life, economical advantages were observed in organ sparing surgery patients. However, local recurrence rate (10%) after TEM in patients, who could be cured by performing TME, was too high. The strategy for managing rectal cancer patient, who is the candidate for organ sparing surgery, was developed.
MODERN MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF GASTRIC CANCER: ACHIEVEMENTS, PROSPECTS
Abstract. The author presents adopted in different regions of the world standards of multimodal treatment of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, and the results of large multicenter randomized studies on which they are based. It is shown that adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and XELOX improves long-term outcomes. At the same time, the additional use of paclitaxel, the combination of the scheme FOLFIRI with docetaxel and cisplatin failed to improve the survival rate. Existing data do not allow to make unambiguous conclusion about the benefits of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Promising areas of researches are an use of neoadjuvant therapy, targeted therapies, the search for biomarkers to predict the prognosis and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy.
THE ASSESSMENT OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SECONDARY CYTOREDUCTIVE SURGERIES IN PATIENTS WITH OVARIAN CANCER RELAPSE
Aim of this study was to assess risk factors affecting the possibility of optimal secondary cytoreductive surgeries, as well as factors correlating with survival in patients with ovarian cancer relapse.
TWENTY YEARS OF ROUTINE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC DIAGNOSTICS OF TUMORS IN TATARSTAN REPUBLIC: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION INTO CLINICAL PRACTICE
Abstract. Since June 1996, the Tatarstan Cancer Center (Kazan) conducted extensive diagnostic work using modern immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical and molecular cytogenetic methods based on the detection of cancer cells in a number of genes and/or specific protein molecules. The total number of tumors, we investigated using immunohistochemical method, systematically increased from 150 in 1996 to 6,250 in 2015, with each expression of tumors was evaluated from 1 to 12 (usually 4-5) and more antigens. Since 2007, genetic studies of potential targets for the treatment of breast cancer, stomach and lung are conducted. To identify the HER2 oncogene amplification 894 analyzes using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in 2007-2011 and 1392 studies with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 2011-2016 were performed.
Such growth of advanced diagnostics requires a well-coordinated work of Oncology Center staff, ranging from administration and to technicians service. Modern morphological verification of tumors enables high-quality diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients in the Republic of Tatarstan for many years.
THE RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE IPSILATERAL LOBAR LYMPH NODE DISSECTION IN THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER
Abstract. The native and foreign literature does not cover the issue of metastasis of lung cancer in the ipsilateral lobar lymph nodes (№12), however, there is the possibility of micrometastasizing, which can result in further development of the disease caused by these lymph node groups’ failure. This work contains a retrospective study of 5-year survival of 1324 patients, depending on the volume of surgery (lobectomy, pneumonectomy) and the impact of the ipsilateral lobar lymph node dissection, certainly performed in pneumonectomy. According to the results, ipsilateral lobar lymph node dissection's indications are: the peripheral lung cancer without regional lymph nodes lesion (No), the central lung cancer without or with lesion of regional lymph nodes of the first level (N0-1), regardless of the primary tumor spread and size (Tx), morphological type, histopathological degree of differentiation (Gx), lesion side, tumor localization.
CLINICAL EVALUATION OF GENE MUTATIONS IN K-RAS PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER
Abstract. One of the most significant events in the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is a mutation in the gene K-ras. Data on the prognostic significance of tumor gene mutations are contradictory and are subject to debate.
A MODERN APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL CANCER. TARGETED THERAPY FOR METASTATIC COLORECTAL CANCER
Abstract. In connection with the development of new possibilities of choice of tactics and approach to the therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer opened the prospects for long-term management of this category of patients. All this allows to change the concept of therapy, moving with metastatic colorectal cancer from the category of fatal diseases in the chronic category, when long-term treatment allows to control the process, choose various options for redundancy schemes in a number of patients over the years.